Q : Hi... I m doing civil engineerning and i m in 2nd year... Please tell me what can i do after this.. . Please thanxx


ANS : do internship in design office , learn manual calculations and then learn softwares


Q :
Why we give beam in the center ?


ANS : if slab area is very large and there is not flat slab system to be used then to control deflection of slabs we have to provide beams at center of slab so that slab panels will be smaller and deflection can be controlled






Q :For a fresher to learn project management which one is much effective "Microsoft project management" or "Primavera"??


ANS : Microsoft project management is more useful to freshers and for small projects but for huge projects Primavera is the best but this is difficult to learn but MPM is easy to learn .






Q :I'm a civil engineering student almost finish my university.I want to be high rise structural engineer,can u tell me the best way and some methods for self study?It is not a "must answer" case, but if u do, thz.


ANS : Start from basics read nadeem hassoun book , Learn basics of Structural analysis and designing , if you want to be High rise structural engineer then you have to learn first basics first then you can design tall buildings , if you directly jumps into learning concepts of high rise or tall buildings then you will get confused , learn step by step and start from basics first





Q : Umar Farooq do you have idea how to define ritz load vectors in etabs from list of loads


ANS : Parallel processing for Ritz-vector analysis

Prior to beginning Ritz analysis, the machine running ETABS uses multiple cores to factor the stiffness matrix. During Ritz analysis, four main operations include:

Solving for new vectors

Cleaning new vectors with respect to previous vectors

Orthogonalizing the final Ritz vector set

Post-processing and saving the vectors

Multiple cores are used only for (1), which dominates when the model is large and a fair number of vectors are requested. (2) and (3) are not parallel, and dominate with an increasing number of vectors, growing exponentially with vector quantity. (4) is linear in time with the number of vectors.

Essential behavior is captured more efficiently when using Ritz or Eigen vectors because they reduce the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) within the system. When more than 20-25% of the DOF are needed as Ritz vectors, direct integration should be considered.
Why does the total number of Ritz vectors requested affect the cumulative modal mass participation ratio for a given number of Ritz vectors?

Extended Question: When 1000 Ritz modes are requested, the cumulative modal mass participation ratio for Rx, with 250 modes, is almost 100%. However, when only 500 modes are requested, the cumulative modal mass participation ratio for Rx reaches only about 70% for all 500 modes. Is there an explanation?

Answer: Unlike Eigen vectors, Ritz vectors do not always produce the same modes. For example, with sets of 200 and 500 Eigen vectors, the first 200 of each set will be the same. However, with sets of 200 and 500 Ritz vectors, none may be the same, though lower modes tend to converge as the number of modes increases.



Starting Ritz Vectors. When the Ritz Vectors option is selected as the Type of Analysis, use the List of Loads and Ritz Load Vectors list boxes and the Add and Remove buttons to specify the starting Ritz vectors.

Any number of starting lo
ad vectors can be specified. Each starting load vector may be one of the following:

An Acceleration Load in the global X, Y, or Z direction.

A static load case.

A built-in nonlinear deformation load, as described below.

For response-spectrum analysis, only the acceleration loads are needed. For time-history analysis, one starting load vector is needed for each load case or acceleration load that is used in any time-history case.

If nonlinear time-history analysis is to be performed, an additional starting load vector is needed for each independent non-linear deformation, i.e., each nonlinear degree of freedom in the link elements. You may specify that the program use the built-in nonlinear deformation loads, or you may define your own load cases for this purpose.

If you define your own starting load vectors, do the following for each nonlinear deformation:

Explicitly define a static load case that consists of a set of self-equilibrating forces that activates the desired nonlinear deformation.

Specify that load case as a starting load vector.

The number of such load cases required is equal to the number of independent nonlinear deformations in the model.

If several link elements act together, you may be able to use fewer starting load vectors. For example, suppose the horizontal motion of several base isolators are coupled with a diaphragm. Only three starting load vectors acting on the diaphragm are required: two perpendicular horizontal loads and one moment about the vertical axis. Independent load cases may still be required to represent any vertical motions or rotations about the horizontal axes for these isolators.

It is strongly recommended that mass (or mass moment of inertia) be present at every degree of freedom that is loaded by a starting load vector. This is automatic for acceleration loads, because the load is caused by mass. If a static load case or nonlinear deformation load acts on a non-mass degree of freedom, the program issues a warning. Such starting load vectors may generate inaccurate Ritz vectors, or even no Ritz vectors at all.

Generally, the more starting load vectors used, the more Ritz vectors must be requested to cover the same frequency range. Thus, including unnecessary starting load vectors is not recommended.

In each generation cycle, Ritz vectors are found in the order in which the starting load vectors are specified. In the last generation cycle, only as many Ritz vectors will be found as required to reach the total number of modes, N. For this reason, the most important starting load vectors should be specified first, especially if the number of starting load vectors is not much smaller than the total number of modes.

Acceleration Loads

The program automatically computes six acceleration loads that act on the structure, three associated with unit translational accelerations in each of the three global directions, and three associated with unit rotational accelerations about the global axes at the global origin. The loads are determined by d'Alembert's principal, and are denoted mux, muy, muz, mrx, mry, and mrz, respectively.

The translational loads are used for applying ground accelerations in response-spectrum and time-history analyses, and can be used as starting load vectors for Ritz-vector analysis. The translational and rotational loads are used for calculating modal participation measures.

The applied ground acceleration is assumed to be uniform, hence it is the same at the base of each restraint, spring, or grounded link element. The response-spectrum and time-history displacements resulting from acceleration loads are always relative to the ground motion.

The acceleration loads are computed for each joint and element and summed over the whole structure. The translational acceleration loads for the joints are simply equal to the negative of the joint translational masses in the joint local coordinate system. These loads are transformed to the global coordinate system. The acceleration loads for the elements are the same in each direction and are equal to the negative of the element masses.

Rotational accelerations cause rotational loads at each joint equal to the negative of the rotational inertia at that joint. Translational loads are also created at the joints and are equal to the negative of the translational mass times the translational acceleration at the joint caused by rotation about the origin.

The acceleration loads can be transformed into any coordinate system. In the global system, the acceleration loads along the positive X, Y, and Z axes are denoted UX, UY, UZ, RX, RY, and RZ, respectively. In a local coordinate system defined for a response-spectrum or time-history analysis, the acceleration loads along the positive local 1, 2, and 3 axes are denoted U1, U2, U3, R1, R2, and R3, respectively.






Q :one of our teacher once asked the question that why are we called CIVIL ENGINEERS??as electrical engineers as name suggest are concerned with electrical, mechanical with machines, chemical with chemicals and similarly industrial, textile etc. so why are we CIVIL ??


ANS : Civil engineering is one of the oldest and most extensive branches of engineering. It focuses on aspects of public works like transportation, water treatment, government buildings, public facilities such as airports and train stations, and other large scale projects which benefit the PUBLIC.

PUBLIC is the word thats why we are called Civil "engineers" because we work for the benefits and comfort and easyness of CIVILIANS i.e. for PUBLIC





Q :for being concrete master which software should i have to learn? nd any other suggestion.


ANS : if you living in India then in india mostly Staad software are used so LEarn Staad software , if you can learn etabs , sap and safe then learn these softwares also




Q :How to register AUTOCAD 2014 ,or registration key if any one has??????


ANS : see below links








Q: FResh ko job na mil rhi ho to usko kya suggest krty hn wo kya kre filhal??? 


ANS : jab tak job nahi milti learn basics of RCC read nadeem hassoun book for this , and revise your structural analysis concepts , Learn etabs by seeing videos which i have uploaded in civilelp.jimdo.com and read and understand whatever i and other members share in this group




Q : Friends Give me suggestions whether to study staadpro or primevera & which one is more important one


ANS :depends upon your interest means in which field you want to continue your career , if on management side then primavera is best otherwise if you are living in india or uae or saudia or wants to go to these countries then Learn Staadpro and if you are in pakistan then learn etabs , sap and safe software


both are totally diff. If u intrested in design then choose staadpro v8i and if u intrsted in managment then go 4 primevera easy




Q : what is a criteria or formula to give dimension of a column because i see in some place their is 12 inch by 12 inch column ,in some place their is 18 inch by 18 inch column ,I hope u get my question.


ANS : acctual size of column can only be decided after complete modelling and analysis of structure , variation of column size depends upon how much load is coming on that column


FOLLOW UP Q : Is there any code references which may assist in initial assessment of load and dimension of column besides its defining its shape?


ANS : the sizing of column is the assessment. for loading the relevant code like UBC or ASCE is asseptable.... the sizing of column shall be such that it satisfies the design......


generally choose width of column as the same as wall thickness , you can assume initital size of 6 " x 24" or 8" x 24" then final sizes will be decided by proper analysis and design



most probably the sizes of the columns shall be given by the architect


ANS : yes mostly in design offices given by architect by can be changed by structural engineers , and for private projects we have to mark columns by ourselves




u have to assume something as per ur experiemce what minimum sixe of column can be govern......... its not in any code i guess....... and neither u can determine just from span,,,,, u need to analyse then to design


ANS : 

for SPecial Moment Resisting Frames as per Chapter 21 of ACI CODE , see below — The shortest cross-sectional dimension,
measured on a straight line passing through the geometric
centroid, shall not be less than 12 in. — The ratio of the shortest cross-sectional
dimension to the perpendicular dimension shall not be
less than 0.4.





Q: Umar bhai can u send me the links of etabs 2013 with crack


ANS : go to below link and go to 4shared website (first search link) , sign up or register and then log in or sign in and download etabs 2013 









Q : I need stadd n primavera software n other softwares plz send me.


ANS : go to below link and go to 4shared website , sign up or register and then log in or sign in and download Staad 


go to below
 link and go to 4shared website , sign up or register and then log in or sign in and download Primavera 






Q : If Passive pressure is greater than Active pressure and Earthpressure at rest why do we still design Retaining structures for Active Earth pressure 2. What is difference bw splitting tensile strength and Tensile strength ..Plz answer help me out


ANS : The active state occurs when a soil mass is allowed to relax or move outward to the point of reaching the limiting strength of the soil; that is, the soil is at the failure condition in extension. Thus it is the minimum lateral soil pressure that may be exerted. Conversely, the passive state occurs when a soil mass is externally forced to the limiting strength (that is, failure) of the soil in compression. It is the maximum lateral soil pressure that may be exerted. Thus active and passive pressures define the minimum and maximum possible pressures respectively that may be exerted in a horizontal plane.



Tensile strength measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks.

The tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress that it can take before failure, for example breaking.

There are three typical definitions of tensile strength:

Yield strength - The stress a material can withstand without permanent deformation. This is not a sharply defined point. Yield strength is the stress which will cause a permanent deformation of 0.2% of the original dimension.

Ultimate strength - The maximum stress a material can withstand.

Breaking strength - The stress coordinate on the stress-strain curve at the point of rupture.



read this 





Q : MOdulus Of subgrade Reation ..Simple defination and formulae to calculte..?? 

i saw a table in which we must be having two things to get its value 
1) Moisture Content 2) Liquid Limit







Q : Can any one tell me about paper presentation? I dont have any idea about tht.. I want latest topic n format.. If possible so please suggest me....


ANS : 

Paper Presentation is all about how you put your topic or present your topic in front of the public. 
They see the way you present it. They way you put your points.
Your way and the style of presenting the paper. The language you present the topic in.

Like if you have to present the paper on "Nanotechnology"
Here first thing is that you have collect the imformation from the source you would like to. It can be the internet or some books on the topic. 

You have to first arrange the imformation in the form as
1. define the topic
2. topic details
2. current affairs
3. advantages and the dis-adv.
4. cuases remedies
5. applications

Then you have to prepare the "Abstract".
Abstract- It is the details in short i.e not exceeding more than two pages. This you have to give to the place you want to present the topic. You have to write the Abstrct in the IEEE format if they ask you to do so. 
IEEE format is like you have to have the specific size of the text 
for the heading the font is 14
for the sub heading the font is 12 and so on. 

you may check the detail from the PDF IEEE(i am not sure about this source.) 

Then you have to make the hard and the soft copy.
One hard copy you have to submit to the place of the presentation.
and one with you. 
Hard copy is the print pages of the detail of the topic(In this too you have to make the use of the IEEE format if specified. )

Soft copy 
it is the power presentation(PP)
Do not write too much in the PP only the point. And explain them.
If the introduction page in made them there is no need to give the introduction again
Make the use of the body language and the facial expressions

and also make a slide of the source you have collected all the imformation from


also see below search link 






Q : Hi

I got a question ? Help please.
It is better to use concrete column or steel colum for hall with a crane(20 tons)?


ANS : Use concrete columns but don't use concrete beam on which track of crane is laid use steel beam otherwise you will be having lot of problems with gantry crane beam made of concrete


 Its your choice but we used concrete columns for more then 80m long track and operating two cranes of 20 ton each carrying approx 17 to 18 tons load and these columns are working perfect by using steel columns you will also make it more expensive too.




Q: If a beam hvng single span then how Etabs wil consider it(fixed, simply supportd r contineous) and in real either it is fixed r simply supported?


ANS :  as you know Fixed support has moment means negative moment in it , then if you are modelling or assigning beam's both ends on two beams then it is simply supported , if one end or both ends of beam rests on shear wall or rcc wall then it is fixed support 

in reality it depends upon detailing means placement of reinforcement , such as in case of walls , when beam is resting on rcc wall or shearwall then beam's reinforcement or wall reinforcement goes into each other then in that it will be automatically fixed support whereas when beam is resting on another beam then its reinforcement will not goes into another beam means it is simply supported




So therefore we hv to release the end moments of single span beam supported by coloums in Etabs ??


ANS :  for single span beam etabs considr it as simply supported for continuous beam its fixed and those beam which are resting on other beams etabs also considr them as fixed now for this last case u have to release end moments for other cases ther is no need of doing so. to see the condition of any beam peform analysis and then see its bending moment diagram from there u can check its end conditions,, and answr to ur above comment is that for single span beam supported on columns its a frame which is fixed so no need of releasing moments..


 i have observed when a beam is resting on an other then ETABS almost treats it as pin support.. negative moment is very less.. so even if you release the moments..not much difference will be observed i think


aBOVE ANSWERS ARE also right but for beams resting on another beams we dont have to rlease end moment because logintudnal reinforcement always goes into passing beam so there will be some small amount of negative moment in it which is true




Q : How do we assign wind load on inclined slab in ETABS.. do we have to calculate the pressure manually using UBC 97 and apply pressure on slab?? or does ETABS automatically apply uplift pressure etc on sloped slabs??


ANS : brother slope ya inclined slab mein kabhi wind load nahi apply kia waisey mein ney , see below link and download and see PDF file 





Q : if you have software plz upload urgent for project


1. Arc GIS 9.0
2. ERDAS 8.7
3. Mapinfo 6.5
Any one or Equivalent.


ANS :  i AM sharing website search links below , go to below links and then go to 4shared website and then register and sign in and download softwares 

for 1 . ) https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&oq=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&aqs=chrome.0.69i57j69i62.2298j0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

FOR 2) https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&oq=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&aqs=chrome.0.69i57j69i62.2298j0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&fp=e8c22a87aeedf13e&q=ERDAS+8.7+4shared

FOR 3) https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&oq=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&aqs=chrome.0.69i57j69i62.2298j0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&fp=e8c22a87aeedf13e&q=Mapinfo+6.5+4shared





Q : if you have any material related to this upload

1. Digitization of Map/Topsheet
2. Creation of thematic maps.
3. Study of features estimation
4. Developing Digital Elevation model
5. Simple applications of GIS in water Resources Engineering & Transportation Engineering


ANS : 

1) https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&oq=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&aqs=chrome.0.69i57j69i62.2298j0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&fp=e8c22a87aeedf13e&q=Digitization+of+Map%2FTop+sheet


3) https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&oq=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&aqs=chrome.0.69i57j69i62.2298j0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&fp=e8c22a87aeedf13e&q=Study+of+features+estimation

4) https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&oq=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&aqs=chrome.0.69i57j69i62.2298j0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&fp=e8c22a87aeedf13e&q=Developing+Digital+Elevation+model

5) https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&oq=Arc+GIS+9.0+4shared&aqs=chrome.0.69i57j69i62.2298j0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&fp=e8c22a87aeedf13e&q=Simple+applications+of+GIS+in+water+Resources+Engineering+%26+Transportation+Engineering




Q : if we want to change section size of beam then how to calculate new steel with out doing back calculations up till moment???


ANS : Steel is calculated from Moment , when you change section of beam means moment will be changed and steel will be revised , you have to again do calculation uptil moment


for this make excel sheet of beam design , where you have to input new size of beam and moment will be calculated




Q : 4m where i can get AUTOCAD ?? and which version is best 4 window 7 (64 bit)..


ANS : From the official Autocad site :

"Both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of AutoCAD® 2010 and AutoCAD® LT® 2010 are compatible with and supported on Microsoft Windows® 7"

You just have to be careful and check that you have the 64-bit version of Autocad 2010 (like your Windows 7 is)

go to 4shared website and download from there





Q: link to download staad pro software??????????


ANS :  brother go to google there type staad pro 4shared and go to that website and register snd sign in and download


 if asking security key then download another staad pro from that website




Q : Anyone had some working link for the following software
1) ANSYS 12 0r 14 and its crack to be installed on Windows 7 along with the video for installation and cracking 
2) and CSI Perform 3d with some
kindly share the links ...thanks



ANS  : go to below link and go to 4shared website and register and log in and download 



for csi perform 3d go to below link 











Q : civil engineer is also an architect but an architect is not a civil engineer.Is it .?


ANS :  in my opinion Architect and civil engineers are different , you can be architect if you are civil engineer but remember you cannot be a GREAT ARCHITECT if you are civil engineer , the mind of architect is different , Architect visualize empty plot and make it beautiful with his or her imagination and the beauty comes in structures Because of ARCHITECT




Q: Assalam o alaikum.. Can any one tell me that if we have option of COST RESOURCE in MS PRoject, Then why is there another term FIXED COST?? What is the difference between Fixed Cost and Cost Resource?? Jazak Allah..


ANS  :  wALLAIKUM US SALAM read this 





Q : I am final year B. Sc. student nd confused about different codes that which system of codes is to be followed in which case  can somebody resolve my problem?


ANS : dont be confused , if you in pakistan then here in pakisan we use ubc codes and ibc codes and aci codes and seldom we use bristish codes


Pakistan building code is copy of UBC code so if you are using ubc code then it means u r using pakistan building code




Q : "horizontal rigid diaphragm connection found between joints at different elevations" how to eliminate this error.

ANS : this error generates when you have assigned diaphragm on inclined surfaces such as on ramps or stair flights , tto remove this error , select all model structure then first of all remove assigned diaphragm in it and then seelect only horizontal floor slabs and one by one by opening floor plans assign diaphragm





Q : While designing a beam in SAP2000, we have to put cross-sectional dimensions. Width of the beam is architecturally kept according to the wall-thickness on which the beam is to be placed OR according to that member, to which beam is to be connected. This width we will put in SAP. Here my question is that how do we decided the optimum depth of the beam to put in SAP2000?


ANS : we always try to keep beam width as per wall thickness , but when beam is failing in shear then we have to increase width of beam , and about depth if architect wants to provide lintel then provide depth of beam upto top of lintel otherwise if no lintel required then you can either provide full depth beam uptop top of window or door or you can provide minimum depth like 24 " or 18 "or 15 "




Q : Can somebody help me to find table of design roof loads?


ANS : Live load = For this there are tables in Ubc code 1997 and in Asce 7-05 code 

In UBC 1997 See Tables 16-A and 16-B 
in ASCE 7-05 see Table 4-1




Q : salam brothers........

Please clarify my doubt

which of the following Stream/specialization have lot of future/scope around the globe for a newly graduated Civil Engineer 
1) Building Construction (Residential, Commercial, Hospitality and Industrial(PEB) etc)
2) Roads and bridges ( Roads, Pavements, Earthworks, Culverts, tunnels)


ANS : Well it depends on lots of things but I think in general building n infrastructure. Btw for bridges structural engineers are preferred over transportation and tunnelling is totally different field. I don't think any uni offers specialisation in either building or roads and bridges. You will 've to chose b/w structures or transportation. I would always prefer structures owing to its versatility.


Civil is a very vide field first you analysis your interest then go ahead for future every structure has its own importance but I suggest for buildings





Q : is there any code guys,, which proves that the compressive strength of cubical is better than cylinerical. ?


ANS : On reflection, fc could mean cylinder crushing strength (usually in USA) and fcu could be a cube crushing strength (used in UK), and both are at 28 days age. The conversion is fc x 1.2 = fcu












I have a problem... old construction or new constraction k bech may minor gap hay jahan say upper ka pani nechay ajata hy. lakin wo bht hi minor gap hyy wo ko band krne ka koi proper solution batadaijn..


ANS : If crack is small enough that it won't create structural issues, you can use cement slurry. Inject it in your cracks. Thats a simple and economical solution to this problem


FOLLOW UP QUESTION : i have applied cement but its not working. or gapitna minnor hay k cement b us mayja nahi sakta


ANS : use chemical named as SBR it is available at SIKA check their website for your further elaboration


make a clear grove of 1" x 1" throughout the construction joint.clean it wash it then fill it with hot bitumen mix with sand


chip out the some of existing material and then only use the sand and cement slurry to fill that portion........it will be okay




Q : What is the difference between tor bar & deformed bar?and where in which type of structure these bars are used?


ANS : read below link 



The correct technical term for TOR steel (which to my
knowledge is a trade mark) is Cold Twisted Deformed (CTD)
Steel Reinforcement Bar. These are steel bars with surface
deformations formed by twisting the steel after elongation.
The elongation proces
s imparts higher yield strength to
steel (increases from 250 to say 500MPa) and surface
corrugations impart higher bondage with concrete.

TOR steel is one of the best grade of steel used in
concrete reinforced. It's a kind of high adherence steel.
Other types of steel are used for less resistance concrete.

At all MS is plain Bar and TOR have different shapes i.e
deformed, twisted, ribbed etc

Type of Steel Bars
1.Mild steel bars
2.Deformed steel bars

1.Mild steel bars
Mild steel bars are used for tensile stress of RCC
(Reinforced cement concrete) slab beams etc. in reinforced
cement concrete work. These steel bars are plain in surface
and are round sections of diameter from 6 to 50 mm. These
rods are manufactured in long lengths and can be cut
quickly and be bent easily without damage.

2.Deformed steel bars
As deformed bars are rods of steels provided with lugs,
ribs or deformation on the surface of bar, these bars
minimize slippage in concrete and increases the bond
between the two materials. Deformed bars have more tensile
stresses than that of mild steel plain bars. These bars can
be used without end hooks. The deformation should be spaced
along the bar at substantially uniform distances.





Q: salam brothers,

i want to ask...
what software can calculate the steel reinforcement accurately?
please help ...


ANS : Wallaikum us salam Etabs and sap and for flat slabs and flat plates and footings except isloated footings,Safe Software and for slab designing excel sheet




Q : salam every 1..koi gradation graphs ki pics post kar sakty hain yahan mje ml nae rahe plz its urgent..


ANS : wallaikum us salam , see below link 


and also this 





Q : Guys hOw can we calculate paint in the form of liters & bucket?


ANS  : see this 











Q : Any info related to the weld connections between beam and joist?


ANS : https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=weld+between+beam+and+joist&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-beta&channel=fflb&gws_rd=cr#bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&channel=fflb&ei=eV8IUqS1HY6EhQe88YCoCA&fp=feeb21914b5d766b&q=weld+between+beam+and+joist&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&sa=N&start=0






Q : What is a sunken slab?




ANS : sunken slab is the slab provided in toilets and bathrooms in order to conceal all the pipelines below the floor.




Q: What is special thing in designing a overhead reservoir,which is different from an ordinary design of any other structure?


ANS : most important or special thing to keep in mind is that always check overturning for overhead water tanks , and thumbrule for foundation size is that the size of foundation must be larger than size of tank




Q : In our text books we consider one roller support for beams.. Where practically is roller support in beams used in real world ? if not why ? If yes example and how ?




Roller supports are free to rotate and translate along the surface upon which the roller rests. The surface can be horizontal, vertical, or sloped at any angle. The resulting reaction force is always a single force that is perpendicular to, and away from, the surface. Roller supports are commonly located at one end of long bridges. This allows the bridge structure to expand and contract with temperature changes. The expansion forces could fracture the supports at the banks if the bridge structure was "locked" in place. Roller supports can also take the form of rubber bearings, rockers, or a set of gears which are designed to allow a limited amount of lateral movement. 

A roller support cannot provide resistance to a lateral forces. Imagine a structure (perhaps a person) on roller skates. It would remain in place as long as the structure must only support itself and perhaps a perfectly vertical load. As soon as a lateral load of any kind pushes on the structure it will roll away in reponse to the force. The lateral load could be a shove, a gust of wind or an earthquake. Since most structures are subjected to lateral loads it follows that a building must have other types of support in addition to roller supports.


read below 











Q : Kindly tell me hw to slab place at bottom of the beam or sofit of the beam normally other word sunk slab place at beam at etab software model


ANS : sadly there is no option in etabs to place slab at bottom of beam


When slab is at bottom of beam , the load transfer from slab to beam is at BOTTOM, 
as shear in slab transferred as reaction to Beam- Bottom in form of UDL .But this is basically a hanging loading. 
Stirrups w
ill be stressed additionally,since apart from transfering beam shear these are 
subject to hanging tension and additional area of stirrup reinforcement 
is needed .which may be added to shear reinforcement worked from shear considerations.




Q : In Etabs model the reber percentage is 8% how to decrease reber percentage (3 to 4%)

i can not change the size of column and also not change f'c


ANS : try to change slab loading if you can


also check in which zone your structure is lying , if your structure is in zone 2b or 2a then in model assign your structure sway intermediate and if zone 3 or 4 assign it sway special , check it first whether you assigned sway special or intermediate


third thing is that i think your span is large thats why columns are getting 8 % rebar , try to introduce more columns along the length of column so that that column will catch not much load from slab , also check your loadings of slab , your wwall loadings on beam


 if ordinarY then select your model completely in 3d view and in design overwrites chnage it to ordinary


check the unbraced length of column... provide bracing beam if unbraced length is large enough





Q : if we want to inject some extra dowels in a existing column through drilling then which chemical will be used as a adhesive material ????


ANS : 

Hilti is expert in this see below 

HIT-HY 150 MAX Fast Cure Hybrid Adhesive

Fast cure hybrid mortar


For high strength concrete anchoring and rebar installation
Fastenings in concrete, e.g. chemical injection bottom plate fixing, railings and safety barriers machines or heavy pipes
Post-installation of rebar connections, e.g. for building extensions, strengthening or replacement of steel reinforcement


Suitable for non-cracked and cracked concrete C20/25 to C50/60
Suitable for dry and water saturated concrete
High loading capacity and high corrosion resistant
Rapid curing to boost application productivity: Fully cured in 30 minutes at 20°C
Free of styrene and plasticizers, low odour, reduced waste
Small edge distance and anchor spacing possible
A wide range of embedment depths and service temperatures
Suitable for hammer drilled holes

HIT-HY 150 MAX-SD Injectable Adhesive Anchor

Seismic approved fast cure mortar with strength design


Rebar installation for a variety of load bearing applications
Anchoring applications with threaded rod such as steel columns and beams, machines, equipment and ledger angles


The first fast cure adhesive anchor with seismic approval for cracked concrete as per
ICC-ES (International Code Council)
Suitable for non-cracked and cracked concrete C20/25 to C50/60
Suitable for dry and water saturated concrete
The fast cure time and easy installation greatly increases productivity: Fully cured in 30 minutes at 20°C
Free of styrene and plasticizers, low odour, reduced waste
Small edge distance and anchor spacing possible
Cold weather installations in service temperatures of -10°C and when concrete temperature reaches 40°C
Uses standard threaded rod or rebar – no special elements are required
Suitable for hammer drilled holes

HIT-RE 500 Adhesive for high loading

Slow cure pure epoxy


Heavy duty fastenings with rebar of different diameters and at great depth
Suitable for starter bars, construction joints, structural extensions, floor slabs, new columns, piers, structural enhancement and retaining walls
Fastening to old or new concrete and hard natural stone: Horizontal, vertical and overhead applications with patented Hilti drip-guard system


Suitable for non-cracked concrete C20/25 to C50/60
Suitable for dry and water saturated concrete
Very high loading capacity with reinforcing bars in the range N10-N40 and high performance fastening with threaded anchor rod
Slow cure and optimum working time with extended temperature range from -5°C to 40°C
High corrosion resistant and suitable for under water application
Odourless epoxy and low wastage foil pack
Small edge distance and anchor spacing possible
A wide range of embedment depths and large diameter applications
Red coloured adhesive for easy checking of proper setting on site
Low sensitivity to oversized holes, dusty and wet holes
Suitable for hammer drilled holes and diamond cored holes

HIT-RE 500-SD Epoxy Adhesive

Seismic approved slow cure epoxy with strength design


For anchoring and dowelling in cracked concrete and seismic applications with a standard threaded rod, internally threaded sleeve and rebar and at great depth
Anchoring steel structures, machines, conveyor systems, crash barriers, storage systems, ideal for concrete overlay shear connectors and structural joints
Rebar installation for a variety of load bearing applications
Fastening to old or new concrete and hard natural stone: Horizontal, vertical and overhead applications with patented Hilti drip-guard system


Seismic approved for cracked concrete as per ICC-ES (International Code Council)
Suitable for non-cracked and cracked concrete C20/25 to C50/60
Suitable for dry and water saturated concrete
Very high loading capacity with reinforcing bars in the range N10-N40 and high performance fastening with threaded anchor rod
Slow cure and optimum working time with extended temperature range from -5°C to 40°C
High corrosion resistant
Odourless epoxy and low wastage foil pack
Small edge distance and anchor spacing possible
A wide range of embedment depths and large diameter applications
Red coloured adhesive for easy checking of proper setting on site
Suitable for hammer drilled holes







Some other adhesives are also available at Sika and imporient chemicals, these are cheaper than HILTI HY-150 max.


epoxy grouting chemicals by sika or imporient chemicals....


use imporuent, as they r cheap n effective i hv used it for a project




Q : How to calculate base plate for Circular Column ... Code: AISC LRFD


ANS : www.sefindia.org/forum/files/circular_base_189.pdf


try this 





Q : is there any code guys,, which proves that the compressive strength of cubical is better than cylinerical. ?


ANS : On reflection, fc could mean cylinder crushing strength (usually in USA) and fcu could be a cube crushing strength (used in UK), and both are at 28 days age. The conversion is fc x 1.2 = fcu












Q : Assalam o alaikum.. can any one tell that what is meant by Early start, early finish, late start, late finish in project management?? what is the logic to introduce two types of times? Jazak Allah..









Q : is any body tell me about steel desinging of slab &colum







Q : If a Civil engr. is called to assess the suitability of a building that whether the building is liveable OR dangerous , what points he should observe/check so that he could declare it suitable OR not????


ans : 1) check cracks whether excessive or small cracks or deep cracks 

2) Check deflections of beams and slabs , if large deflections then warning signal





Q : Two models banaein

both having all the parametrs same at every respect
but only difference is
1st model having Live and Dead load
2nd having Live Reducible and DEAD load
Columns reactions per kea farq aega?


ANS : go to below link and read Reducible live load discussion i just uploaded in there 






Q: if there are two or three flights between two consecutive stories

to kea hum stairs load (D.L and L.L) ko 3 say mutiply karky assign karengy?


ANS : modeling stairs in etabs or sap is not much time consuming because when one floor flights are made in software then you can replicate that to other floors , i do not recommend applying or assigning line loads to periphery beams


 framing system of stairs is very very important


also you should not take stairs in diaphragm





Q : FACADE load ko SDL lagana chahea ya OTHERS mai ? 
OTHERS means?


ANS : SDL ? you mean service dead load ? , OTHERS in etabs means any loads except Dead selft weight , such as finishes , sunk , partition , soil pressure , water pressure , load of generator pad etc etc


facade super imposed DL me hi shaamil hoga aur mass source me bhi include hoga






Q : what should be torsional constant for beam and column?


ANS : for columns always 1 and for beams see below link and calculate actual torsional constant values for beams and then apply them in model 





Q : What is EPC project and Turnkey Project


ANS : see this 







ANS :  go to below link and go to 4shared website and sign up and log in and download 





Q: A-o-A. i have problm with slab when i used to draw it it comes at bottom of the beam. i dont why? i m also sending model, plz chek and let me know why its happen so?A-o-A. i have problm with slab when i used to draw it it comes at bottom of the beam. i dont why? i m also sending model, plz chek and let me know why its happen so?


ANS :  Wallaikum us salam brother , i checked , no error here in model , you are viewing model in EXTRUDE view , uncheck Extrude view and then check at each floor , slab is correctly assigned

even in EXTRUDE view slab is showing correctly it is not showing at bottom in 3d view , click on slab it shows at top of Beam but in 3d view it shows Beam icompletely thats why it is showing just like it is in bottom of beam but when you click on slab it is on top of beaM




Q : Kindly tell me hw to slab place at bottom of the beam or sofit of the beam normally other word sunk slab place at beam at etab software model


ANS : sadly there is no option in etabs to place slab at bottom of beam


 go in assign frame/line insertion point... change it from bottom centre to top centre.....


 u can assign beam insertion as u need , ther r 9/10 options r available there...




Q : Partition wall load ko on slab as a line load lagana chahea jahan jahan need hai ya

pori slab par distribute kardena chahea?


ANS : if there are one or two partition loads in slab panel then assign as LINE LOAD but if more than 2 partition walls are there then assign as area pressure and value for that is 20 psf


 i think most of the times slab panels me 20 psf se zyada wall load ban raha hota hai...tu iski proper calculation zaruri hai...


partition load should be calculated.. in case of lavatory block it exceeds upto 60psf depends on area...




Q : Hey guysss Plzz Help me

me and my friends are working on the project on

Low Cost Housing ....

Its For that people that lives below middle cls

And its not house its one 10*10 ft room

I want to know The Cheap materials which can be used in Housing


ANS : See this 



also this 



 u can use TIN.
also u can use bamboo.
many people uses grass and mud mixture which is very cheap and insulater.
people of village uses mud walls with outer covering of cow dung coz it doesn't allow mud to dispossessed by rain.
there r many ways brother!!!


 Looks like an NGO shelter project. Look for the locally available cheap materials.




Q : ETABS mai meshing karneki kea zarorat hai?

jahan jahan beams arhi hain just agar wahien slab break kardien to bhi reactions same aty hain


ANS :  to have the loading to be transmitted to the supports accurately meshing is necessary


MEshing must be provide in slab bcz all slab load are transfer beams accuratly & beam load transfer to column




Q: expansion joint kea hota hai?


ANS : Read this 



To give way to structural member for expand or contract...basically its a discontinuity in structure 1" to 2" which later filled with compressible material like thermo pore or bitumen...




Q : if you are doing your private design and dont have any company then on drawings which seal will be displayed???


ANS :no need of any seal , architects seal is enough because architect is the project manager




Q: why mostly sewerage pipes are circular?


ANS : the circular shape allows for a smoother flow of liquid within the pipe and less resistance.


to avoid clogging , errosion and to maintain the safe velocity of sewage in pipes





Ec = 33 x (Wc)^1.5 x (F'C)^0.5

YAHAN ( Wc = ? )
If 150 or 145 ?

then ETABS mai MASS/VOL 
and WEIGHT/VOL mai kea enter karengy ?


ANS : change your units into lb-ft and enter 150 value in weight per unit volume , Ec = 57400 x (f'c) ^0.5 or 57000 x (f'c) ^0.5 , no need to change mass per unit valoume value , let it remain as default in ettabs or sap


For mass=w/g=150/32.2=4.65
For weight=mg=4.65*32.2=150




Q : Asslam0- alikum, Dear Bro, I have checked the website [civilelp.jimdo.com];Nice job ,even though website is still under construction as much as i know ,but i hope you shouldn't forget something really important , most Engineering issues could not be delivered through speech[text] ,so I believe you shall not forget to add interesting and topic related photos in order to clear the problems in each section. Best Regards


ANS : Wallaikum us salam , yes website will always be updated as group will be updated inshALLAH , 

you mean what i shared or told all of you so far about engineering things by making pictures in this group ?







Q: Asalawalekum bro i have 1 small doubt hw to determine load beariang capacity of soil without any using any instment. i hear wn i worked in my A.E he told me to excavate earth nd drop the big stone frm 1meter ht .another method if u knw pls share with us my dear frnd


ANS : yes it is the correct method to drop stone from some height


Well you can just estimate by soil type and its physical characteristics. It requires a little bit of experience though. I've worked with highly qualified Geothechnical Engineers but never heard of this stone method.






Q : In concrete compression test, normally 150mmx150mmx150mm concrete cube

samples is used for testing. Why isn’t 100mmx100mmx100mm concrete cube samples
used in the test instead of 150mmx150mmx150mm concrete cube samples?


ANS : Basically, the force supplied by a concrete compression machine is a definite value. For normal concrete strength application, say below 50MPa, the stress produced by a 150mmx150mmx150mm cube is sufficient for the machine to crush the concrete sample. However, if the designed concrete strength is 100MPa, under the same force (about 2,000kN) supplied by the machine, the stress under a 150mmx150mmx150mm cube is not sufficient to crush the concrete cube. Therefore, 100mmx100mmx100mm concrete cubes are used instead to increase the applied stress to crush the concrete cubes.

For normal concrete strength, the cube size of 150mmx150mmx150mm is already sufficient for the crushing strength of the machine.




Q : which is more preferable...?

STAAD pro. or ETABS..?


ANS : both are excellent softwares . In some countriees etabs is used and in somestaad .




Q : after fixing of slab steel, client have some issue with consultant so he look forward to change consultant & this process is taking too much time. my question is that how many days we can delay for concrete casting(pouring) so that rusting of steel doesn't effect strength.?? and also how can we say that rusting cross the limit??


ANS : No issue. There are remedial measures if the rebar is rusted. On my current project, steel was completed and stayed there for two years. Thereafter, when the project restarted, we applied some remedial measures on severely rusted rebar and now, concrete will proceed after Eid.


Rusting of steel reduces the dia of the rebar. You clean the rust by sand blasting which reduces dia of rebar. You compensate the rebar area lost due to rusting by adding extra rebars.





Q : how to draw/define embedded beam reinforcement in slab using ETABS?


ANS : you mean concealed beam ? to define this beam go to define then frame section then add rectangular and there in width box type width of concealed beam which can 18 " or 24 " and in depth box type slab thickness 

to draw that , draw that beam just same as you draw or assign normal beam in etabs




Q : done with modelling of Ramps,Any Design notes for it ?


ANS : design notes ? no need to have design notes , when you modelled ramp in etabs or sap , analyse it and see moment stresses and design that ramp




Q: What will be the difference in shear wall by meshing it 4 x 4 and 4 x 2, after designing in Etabs?


ANS : there will be difference in reactions but cummulative reactions will be same , no difference in designing of shear wall




Q : Can anyone share with me Link or any helping material to learn Primavera/MS Project.


ANS : www.cbtnuggetslab.com




Q : Does anyone have the knowledge of revit and how to show different phases of excavation on it


ANS : see below search link 






Q : any software or worksheet for counter fort retaining wall design. ?


ANS : http://civilengineerspk.com/booksfiles/




Q : any software or way to keep up the basics of civil engineering in mind>??


ANS : for basics Nadeem Hassoun book is excellent


nadeem hassoun is structural base book.. CIVIL ENGINEERING by R.AGOR is the best book for Civil engineers..




Q : me a civil third yr B.E., engineering student. can anyone suggest me the additional software to learn right now


ANS : U must known that which field u hv chosen transpotation , structure watersupply etc.then finaly decided which software u hv learn in these field


Transpotation (civil 3D, egal point, moss etc).structure field. Etab,staad ,sap etc.


master AutoCad & then StAAD Pro... enough for now, later on according to your job suitability they teach you in training...... (Indian Scenario)





Q : can we reduce the slab thickness by increasing column dimensions?


ANS : slab thickness is calculated from the clear dimensions of slab , if you are increasing column dimensions if you are increasign width of column then it is possible that slab thickness will be reduce but you cannot increase width of column as much


by increasing number of columns and providing beams in between slab panels then slab panels will be reduced and thickness can be reduced by this way




Q : Please share your approach of designing Basement wall and its foundation... manually or using ETABS and SAFE


ANS : To manually design basement walls use this below link


Analyse basement wall by this excel sheet and using load and moment design strip footing manually

Basement walls are analysed in Sap software not in etabs , yes you can model Basement walls in etabs then export that Model into Sap and Use sap software because to apply Triangular pressure of soil on basement walls you can use only SAP software and using joint pattern you can assign Triangular pressure on walls And then use safe software to design footing of basement walls or you can design footing in sap software also




Q : If an arch is always in compression, y v provide reinforcement in it?



ANS : To be able to withstand the strong compression forces that help the arch keep its shape , the arch must be built out of materials that can handle such compression, thats why steel and poured concrete, which can be more easily shaped, are being used.


the steeel is provided to increase overall compressive strength and to make it ductile




Q : steel construction manual LRFD 13th edition kahen say mil sakta hya?


ANS : check this mediafire linkhttp://mediafire.com/?nnaynmmogzm





Q : can any one tell me link to download latest version PRIMAVERA?


ANS : go to below search link and go to 4shared website and sign up or register and then login or sign in and download your desired software 





Q : how can we utilize S-Curve in Monthly Report?


ANS : We track financial progress of a project through S-Curve. If you have incorporated all cost data into a P6 or MSP schedule, S Curve can be generated by a button. Else, make expected Monthly Workdone value predictions on Excel. Then make a cumulative column, use that cumulative monthly values to draw Graph. This graph is S-Curve. Track it by cumulative Actual Workdone values when available.





Kindly share some useful abbreviations which are mostly used in Civil Engineering field.. 



ANS : http://www.aleckassociates.co.uk/abbreviations-used-in-engineering-and-construction/





Q : What is the purpose of Plinth Beam and is it designed in normal as other beams?


ANS  :  plinth beams are provided below walls so that walls cannot deflect or settles in soil , its a base to support walls , second purpose is to provide dpc we have to provide plinth beam and dpc is provided above plinth beam , 3rd purpose is to tie columns so that unbraced length of columns will be less 

and yes it is designed same as normal beams except slab load will not come in plinth beams because there are no slabs in plinth level








Q: What should be the temperarure of cement concrete mortar in hot and cold weather?



ANS : For normal concrete its 7 and 32. For mass concrete it should be b/w 4 to 25. Well at time of mixing the temperature of cement should be less than 50. In addition to this for Hot weather concreting wind velocity should also be taken into account to avoid plastic shrinkage cracks. I don't think there are any temperature requirements for mortar.






Q : bearing capacity in Multan?????


ANS : bearing capacity does not depend on city wise , in one city different areas has different bearing capcities , no general bearing capcity for multan


it depends upon soil condition , for sandy soil means poor soil , take bearing capcity of 0.5 tsf , wherase for rockey area means good soil , you can take 1.5 tsf

for sandy soil go for raft foundation or pile foundation 

for rocky area go for isolated footing


take 1 tsf bearing capacity at 5 feet below natural ground level FOR multan 




Q : If we have soil investigation report of some adjacent site can we use same value of bearing capacity in foundation design for our site


ANS : YES in that case we can use that bearing capacity





Q: how can i draw a circular footing in SAFE V12.the footing also have bends for offset columns other then column in circular pattern.
If any document relating to it will be appriciated..


ANS : if sap has option to export files to safe or vice versa if safe has option to iimport sap software file in it then Make this circular footing in SAP software and then import that in safe and design it





Q :  i am a student of cls xi (sci).. In wich part of phy,che,maths i should focus so that i cn easy become a civil engineer lik u people


ANS : MATHS , BUT civil engineering courses are different from inter and matric classes subjects , so till now Concentrate on Maths subject




Q : Wat is the demand of civil engg..


ANS : Demand of civil engineer is alwways very high because building , bridges and other structures are need of human being and that structures will be designed by CIVIL ENGINEER , thats why demand of Civil engineer in every era is very high






Q : What is the difference between force and load?????????


ANS : Load is generally referred to as "static load" which is the weight of an external thing on an object in question. On the other hand, force is a "dynamic load" and is a function of mass of the object as well as variable/non-variable acceleration acting of the object. In other words, Load created by an object of mass "m " is equal to "mg" where 'g' is acceleration due to gravity which is constant for a particular place on earth. The force exerted by the same object on another could be "mf" where 'f' is variable/non-variable acceleration of the object (which is not necessarily the acceleration due to gravity). The 'f' when equals 'g', force & load are numerically the same. Load in general acts downward, whereas force can be exerted in any direction.


It is all about context. 

Let's talk about a clothesline. 

The load on the clothesline is the weight of all the clothes hanging from the clothesline. 
That load is one of the forces on the line. 

Each end of the clothesline is attached to something; the clothesline pulls on that thing, and that thing pulls with an equal and opposite force on the clothesline. 
That pull is another one of the forces on the line. 
The force of that pull is often many times the force of the load of the clothes. 

There is also the small force of gravity acting on the mass of the clothesline itself. 
That force is another one of the forces on the line. 

On some days, the wind pushes directly on the line, and indirectly on the clothes hanging on the line. 
That "wind load" is another force on the clothesline. 

Many students taking classes in statics learn about the internal forces on ropes such as this clothesline. 
They imagine cutting the line, holding the cut ends with their hands, and try to figure out how hard they would have to pull to keep it in the same place that it was before the cut. 
In other words, they are trying to figure out the internal pull of one part of the rope on the other part. 
These students learn about many kinds of internal (non-load) forces, such as tension, compression, torsion, bending moment (torque), etc. 
In ropes, such internal forces are always in tension, but other (non-rope) structures have all these other kinds of internal forces.





Q : which welding is required for the Fixing of MS Plate and Rail Joining together Please tell me


ANS : see these documents 






Q : Assalam o ALaikum!

What is the difference b/w dynamic analysis and seismic analysis??


ANS : wallaikum us salam , Seismic analysis means taking coonsideration of Earthquake forces in structure and these eathquake forces must be taken into consideration in all buildings and to do dynamic analysis UBC code has provided some points when to use dynamic anaylsis for structures for this see below link 



read this for complete understanding





Q: Can any one give me the AASHTO highway design Book (complete).


ANS : go to below search link and from there go to 4shared website and sign up or register first in that website and then login and download your desired book inshALLAH 




Click on the Link and Download 
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Book 6th Edition , 2011




Q : How to calculate the length of the bar of spiral ring


ans : 2pie r ,This is one ring length & its multiply by no of rings then total length of the ring vl be found




Q: Lintels comes in Blockwork ,and its quantities r present in BOQ sometimes and sometimes not....! 

But if it is not given in BOQ then wat should we do?
scope of whom?


ANS :  This is the duty of contractor. Although lintels should be the part of boq as "rate only" items but if not then contractor will complete the job and will be accointed in "extra" bill.


They are mentioned in specs and in good specs, it is always written that Contractor has to built in the rate of lintels in their Block Work rates. In addition, they are also visible on Drawings.


fOLLOW UP Q :  if we r the subcontractor and not present in our BOQ

then wat will b the situation ?
can we claim for extra bill


ANS : If you are a reputable sub-con then you are in a better position to anticipate expected work in your contract so you cannot argue that it was not in the BOQ (if it is in specs and drawing). Only way you can claim is when a reasonable sub-con cannot infer from the bidding documents (Drawings, Specs, BOQ etc) that lintel was required at that particular place. Example could be a design change introducing "Lintels" which could never be possible in the old design. Regardless of the above comments, Consultants in the market are not that thorough in Contract Management and you may get the claim.




Q : LRFD and ASD mai kea differences hain ?and why two methods for steel design?


ANS : Taken from page 79-80 of Kaplan Study guide-

"ASD: the tradintional method for structural steel design, in which the actual dead, live, and other loads are unfactored (not increased). The factor of safety is obtained by using allowable stresses that are less than the yield stress. (i.e. aloowable fexural stress is 0.66 times yield stress = factor of safety of 1/0.66, or 1.5

LRFD: also known as limit states design, is a newer method of designing steel structures, in which various loads (dead, live, etc) are multiplied by their respective load factors. The nominal strength, which is generally the yield strength, is multiplied by a resistance factor, which is less than 1. The primary objective of LRFD is to provide more uniform reliability for all stel structures under various loading conditions."





Q : Sample of Shop Drawings ... for Roads and Buildings please


ANS : see these sites











Q: Does any one knows the etymology of the word "THEODOLITE (the surveying instrument)".


ANS : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodolite





Q : Sab Say Pahlay SAP Ana Chahiyay Ya ETAB???


ANS :  etabs , It depends ke aapko kaam kia karna hai etabs used for building design.. sap is used for various other things including bridges..steel structures n other stuff..





Q : how to calculate the cement quantity for plastering work ? please post your answers..thanking you


ANS : http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/TheCivilEngineer/message/14400







Q : I want to take my M.Engg. thesis on retrofitting of old structure....now plz give me suggestion what will be my thesis title.


ANS : see this search link you will find interesting topis or title for thesis inshALLAH 






Q : hi to all .6m:-X5mrOom wal thickness 35 .supose we built up r.c.c hw many cement bags require and hw much steel requried if room ht is 3m.pls send formulas i trying to know this structure i doing dis estimate


ANS : http://www.lowes.com/cd_Concrete+Pad+Calculator_100901113_





Q : Hi guys, I am having difficulties to model stair & ramp in Etabs. Could you help me by posting any tutorial regarding stair & ramp modelling in Etabs?


ANS : remember this Ramps can be modelled from plan to below plan , means if your ramp is starting from ground to basement then first open ground floor plan then assign slab horizontally then go to Draw then Draw reshape object then click on this horizontal slab then white dots will apear around 4 corners of slab then right click on that point which you have to drop from this ground to basement and window will appear and put in Z-ord box value of Basement floor level and do same thing for second point and open 3d view , ramp will be modelled inshALLAH


same thing applied for stair modelling in etabs , means drop down modelling , means if you have two floors , one is ground and other is first floor then , in between there will be landing level , now if your ground floor is at level 3' and first floor is at 15' then your landing level will be 3 + 15 / 2 * 9 feet , now make reference plane at 9 ft , go to edit then edit reference plane and there in z-ord box put 9 feet , then click ok , now make landing slab area in first floor plan by null lines then select that null lines and move that lines to 9 feet means to get to 9 feet from 15 feet you have to type -6 in Delta z and then click ok , now open reference plane and you will see null lines here now select draw points objects and click on bottom left portion of this null lines in reference plane and here in Plan offset X type width of stair flight slab , if your stair flight slab is 4 feet then type 4 here and point will be made in this plane at4 feet from bottom left of null lines , now select these two points that is bottom left and this point at 4 feet and then replicate that point to that dimension which is your flight stair slab length then click only on that points which will be at supose 8 feet from these points of null lines and move that points to ground floor level means ground floor is at level 3 feet and you have to go from 9 feet to 3 feet means you have to type 6 feet in Delta z box then assign slab from bottom left point and at 4 feet from bottom left point in reference plane to points at 8 feet from these points in ground floor , your stair flight slab will be assigned now and same thing you will do for flight which is coming down from first floor slab to landing level






Q : Asalam alaikum, 

Will someone please tell me what is the wastage we add when we calculate quantities of different stuffs ? Please provide information about rate analysis as well. Regards and JazakaAllah.


ANS : (1): 25% for concrete works,,,,,,(2): 5% for overlaping of materials


How do we consider wastage in calculating tiles and bricks?


 3 % for bricks






Q : Why and where epoxy material can be used?


ANS : see this link




Q : What is the quantity of cement in Mix M20 concrete?

ANS : For nominal Mix Cement consumption for M25 will be 570 kg per cum. and for Design Mix it can be optimised to 510 kg per cum.




Q: Hi guys, this is my final year,i have no practical knowladge so plz tell me what i do? During This year.



learn softwares especially etabs software or which ever software uses in india and also learn manual calculations of structural elements





Q :i have seen many post here that after analysis we can design slab and ramp in etabs by seeing there stresses. but how to do this?? as it shows stress diagram showing diffrnt colors then how to take values from these and how to use them??



first of all mak eenvelope load combo , means you have defined already seeprate load combos from ubc / aci code and which is factored now to make envelope combination , name envelope combo and then inside it add up all factored load combos but its not add in load combination type it wil be ENVELOPE ,

now we cannot design slabs in etabs , except stair flight slabs and landing slabs , slabs are designed in safe software , and stair flight slabs or landing slabs can also be designed in SAP software and ramp can be designed in etabs as well as in sap software

now you have already made factored envelope then anaylse structure then see area stresses then there will be M11 and M22 , open M11 and for envelope load combo check Moment values by moving cursor on the slabs or ramp then designed for negative and positive moment , you dont have to see colors just move cursors on slabs or ramps same case applied for M22


but if we are using this way then at how many points we have to see stresses for proper design and which value to use m11 or m22 or m12



do not see points just see color panels below and slide your mouse cursor upon slab panels and design it for maximum negative and postivie moments





Q: plzz any body send me link for downloading auto cad 2012 for 64 bit or plz send me torrent file



go to below link and download 4hared website brother , first you have to sign up in 4shared website and then log in and download






Q :Ramadan Mabrook to all of you.... does any1 have complete AASHTO in PDF form??


ANS : go to below link and download 4hared website brother , first you have to sign up in 4shared website and then log in and download






Q :weld design ka koi handout? and connection design ka bhi?


ANS : use Segui book or gayload & gaylord book for weld and connection designs best books hain





Q :Ultimate load kis mai use hota hai? LRFD or ASD?


ANS : LRFD , not ultimate its factored load and in asd its service load( means without any factor)






Q : while pouring slab, at which place construction joint is provided?


ANS : http://www.pavingexpert.com/concjnt1.htm




The point where work has to be stopped for some reason we have to provide construction joint at that place.. koi specific place nai hoti acc to my lil knwldge




Primarily the joints should be at the section where shear is minimum and the face of the joint should be perpendicular to compressive forces in the member.in slab the joint may be parallel or prep to main reinforcement if it is perpendicular to the main reinforcement then the joint should be place exactly at the Center of span if it is parallel then it can be provided anywhere so that long as it not nearer to 8 times the thickness of the slab from the edge of the parallel beam designed as T beam



We mostly avoid Vertical Joints as they're quiet dangerous and might cause serious issues











Q : What are the necessary conditions when we should consider the vertical seismic effect on the Structure?



Vertical component of seismic action shall be considered 
when vertical peak ground acceleration agv≥0.25g, and the 
structure has one of the following characteristics:
– has horizontal elements spanning over 20 m
– has cantilever elements with a length over 5 m
– has prestressed horizontal elements
– has columns supported on beams
– is base-isolated


 EC8 (EUROCODE8) In Sec. the suggested values of avg is defined as 0.9 times ag , then the vertical component is only to be considered


read this presentation also 






Q :why we take trusses joints as pin connected in prob solving despite of the fact that they are welded and they shhould b treated as a rigid support?? rep me plz


Answers ; 

Read all these document it will answer your Question 


since we assume that the truss members are either in pure tension or compression with no moment so we assume the joints as pin connected since there is no moment at pin support.

 in pin support there is no moment, we have only the reaction forces and that is why the assumption is taken to have pin support at the joint of a truss. this also emanate the determination of the stability of a truss.




Do we replace the beam after designing with "SD beam" in Etabs?



why SD beam ? why not defining in section properties ? reason of defining SD beam in etabs ? what is beam shape ? is it not rectangular section ? is it varied section thats why you defined SD BEAM ?

answer to above 

 i just saw in tutorial that shear wall and beams are replaced by SD beam .. i thought "may be it's just for reinforcement detailing by our own choice, that's why he replaced the beam with an SD."

Section Designer option in Etabs to define required shape of columns but never heard of using sd sections for beams

I used SD sections only in Columns....dont think so used in beams also...

according to section designer manual of etabs.. we can use sd section for beams also...but In the Design Type area leave the No Check/Design option selected.
please see the section designer manual of etabs




Question :
Umar Farooq
In Video 7 U defined Load combos as per UBC 97 and u recommended us to follow that.... Brother can u tell us that shud v define ACI load Combos as well because v Follow both the Codes in design offices?



yes both are same , but aci 1999 code because aci 1999 and ubc 1997 is compatible

Updated editions of the code were published approximately every three years until 1997, which was the final version of the code. The UBC was replaced in 2000 by the new International Building Code (IBC) published by the International Code Council (ICC).



Q : 

could any one tell me about percentage of steel in concrete structure
members like column beam slab...etc

Ans : 

maximum percantage in columnsshould be 4 % not more than that and for beams Reinforcement will be get to know after designing , 

you cannot apply thumb rule in Beam and columns design , you have to analyse compllete structure first then after that design that from moments

 Slab and foundation 80-100 kg/m3
Columns 150-200 kg/m3
 Beams 120-160 kg/m3
Walls 120 kg/m3

for checking or preliminary estimation you can consider .. 70 to 90kg/m^3 for footing, 250 to 400kg/m^3 for column and 160 to 200 kg/m^3 for beams...80 to 100 kg/m^3 for slab






How to calculate the column load????



 by catchment area method , Slab transfers it load to Beams and beam transfers its reaction to columns

a simple method...0.24 X tributary area X No. of stories....0.24 is UDL on tributary area , Load in Kips...


In design office ,catchment area method is used but the easiest method is tributary method..




Q : 


when i was exporting file from ETABS to SAFE, this error occurs:
"error in recieving frame joint forces". please tellme why it occurs and how it resolve.

aNS : 


Unk etabs model mai joint nodes hongya jis k wajha sa error hoga then first remove the joints node then checkmodel & start analysis.u hv to import this file to safe now this error vl be remove




Q : 


Whats spectral acceleration in a responce spectrum n y is it better to use it as a parameter in seismic assessmnt as opposed to peak ground acceleration???



Spectral acceleration (SA) is a unit measured in g (the acceleration due to Earth's gravity, equivalent to g-force) that describes the maximum acceleration in an earthquake on an object – specifically a damped, harmonic oscillator moving in one physical dimension. This can be measured at (or specified for) different oscillation frequencies and with different degrees of damping, although 5% damping is commonly applied.[1] The SA at different frequencies may be plotted to form a response spectrum.

Spectral acceleration, with a value related to the natural frequency of vibration of the building, is used in earthquake engineering and gives a closer approximation to the motion of a building or other structure in an earthquake than the peak ground acceleration value,[2][1] although there is normally a correlation between [short period] SA and PGA.[2]

Some seismic hazard maps are also produced using spectral acceleration.

Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA)

The peak ground acceleration during an earthquake measured in units of 'g' (gravity).

Spectral Acceleration (SA)

The maximum acceleration of a damped, single-degree-of-freedom harmonic oscillator, measured in units of 'g' (gravity). Spectral acceleration is an approximate measure of what is experienced by a building during an earthquake and is further specified by:

Spectral Period: the natural period (seconds) of the oscillator
Spectral Damping: the degree of damping for the oscillator (usually 5%)


see also this pdf file , read all it will give you idea why SA is better to use in place of PGA 







what is diffrnc b/w One-way slab & 2 way slab ???




if the ratio of the longer and shorter side of the slab is equal or greater than 2 than it is one way slab and if the ratio is smaller than 2 than it is two way slab...


one way slab transfers the load only two sides of the beams..i,e longer side and two way transfer the load on all four sides of the beam..


if LY/LX>2 than we use one way slab if <2 than use two way slab.One way slab supported only two direction and two way slab supported in all four direction.


the load transfer path of one way slab is rectangular and in two way slab its triangular and trapezoidal loading
in shorter side it transfer the load in triangular form and in longer side trapezoidal form


keep one thing in mind about the ratio ..some people get confuse about the ratio when it comes 2..keep in mind when the ratio is 2..its a one way slab not a two way slab


 In one way slab the main steel is put parallel to the shorter side and the distribution steel is put parallel to the longer side...
and in two way slab there is no such thing like distribution as the slab bends in all direction so in two way slab both the steel are main steel


in one way slab the main bar is put at the bottom and the distribution/temperature/shrinkage bar at the top







Q: what should be the recomendations/solutions of all the problems that come while designing in staad??


ANS : see below links










see below links









Good day. I am in my fourth year of civil engineering about to start working on a final yr project and im biased to structural design. I would like to work on rc design of a one story building using STAAD.Pro or alternately on designing a radio mast using STAAD.Pro. I would like to get a procedural breakdown of how to do these using the software if you are familiar with it. Thanks

Hi Dayveed,

This is too complex a subject to go through this medium, but you can learn the basics of STAAD.Pro by following its help menus, and also on-line tutorials:







do i have to check global or local deflection for the members. please help!

ANSWER: Hi Anees,

This depends on the nature of the structure and what you are trying to check. For example, for a high rise, you need to check global lateral deflections for the columns/storeys and for the beams you need to check local member deflections, or global deflections minus local deflections of the nodes either side of the member in question.

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: Dear sir,
Thank you very much for the prompt reply. i have modelled a space floor for a villa on staad pro, with beams and fload applied on it with load combinations as usual. normally, i used to check local deflection in y direction for beams, but today when i checked the global deflection gy , it is much more than the local gy deflection. now can i use the local deflection or global gy less local gy for beams, with the above mentioned model. thank you sir!

Hi Anees,

In your case, the overall deflection of the slabs is a critical servicibility criterion (for example cracking of partition walls, etc), so I would consider the overall global deflection without deducting deflection of the supporting beams.






About meter tape 
There is one mark on 16 inch in meter tape plz tell me about it




Read this 








with same steel % in rectugular, square, and circular columns, which one can carry maximum load ???




The most efficient shape of a column section is square, circular or any symmetric shape such that one axis is not significantly weaker than another. Sections that are efficient as beams are NOT efficient as columns, and vice versa.


Circular Columns Can carry maximum load but due to form work arrangement & complexity in construction square columns are preferred






Q : 


HOW to calculate the water cement ratio like 0.6?




Concrete with 300kg of cement and 180 litres of water has a w/c ratio of 0.6 (i.e. 180÷300 = 0.6).








I need the Rate List of the Machinery and the Man power provided by the different provincial assemblies or the concerned authorities, through which we can do Rate Analysis for any of the project...
I would be really thankful if you could help me....


ANS : 


see this link and see all pages in that link 










Q : 


what is meant by yield strength, flexural stress and other technical terms related to steel??


ANS : 


"yield strength"?
The ability of a metal to tolerate gradual progressive force without permanent deformation. 

"flexural stress"?
The internal load that a part is subjected to when a force causes an object to bend perpendicular to the object's long axis.


For more definitions see below website 








Assalam o Alaikum... to all members i need ur help plz......
main job k interview dena hai .. so suggestion me kn kn question main yad karon of building line... i clear my interview










Q :


How we shall conclude that any given structure unstable?




When excessive cracks in building , When structure starts to tilt due to soil settlement , when structures starts to vibrate






Q : 


what kind of material we have tol fill in expansion joint of boundry wall???




20mm Thick Thermopole is best for expansion joint


Before concreting filler board are used ... normally stirofoam or thermopole are not allowed..

After concrete sealent or filler material is usee


we are filling with bitumen and also timber including with bitumen


thermopore..or jumbolon board








agar engineer kay phonchnay say pehlay concrete mixing ho gyi ho then how will engineer verify the the concrete mix ratio?


ANS : 


 the material shall be visually inspected for uniform mixing and the correct moisture content. Material which does not meet the visual inspection shall be rejected and shall not be included in the work. If the Engineer determines that the material has excessive balls it will be rejected. Material that is excessively wet or dry shall be rejected. When the concrete is at the correct moisture content a small sample can be compressed by hand to form a shape which will remain after compression. With slight bouncing the compressed concrete will break in to several large pieces. No consideration for payment of any sort will be given for rejected material.






Take that sample of glass... now pour water in a measuring cylinder to check volume and do the same with cement n then check ratio... I guess that's how its got to be done..



Guys if engineer is really a Engineer he can tell you by looking at ratio that its same ratio you use to work on , or garbar, or you can look the ratio and tell whether its poor rich meduim.





Q : 


Please recommend any basic and descriptive "Structural Dynamics" book that covers every aspect of it...


ANS :: 


Refer Anil K Chopra book < Excellent book


Dynamics of structures by clough also good book





Downloading anil k chopra

If anybody needs d link.








pls help....can any one sent some full report of latest seminars...??? pls help monday is the last date for submission! i cant do it on time due to a severe accident..pls help (hkmpty@gmail.com)




U can have Technical Reports from here 





Q :


can anyone tell me how 's the load transfer mechanism in a building i.e. a frame consist of a slab, 4 beams ,4 or 6 coloumn..........want to know how load is transferd frm slab to columns


ANS : 


column loads can be calculated by many methods..two of them are:
1=catchment Area Method.
2=Tributary method.



Tributary Method:
the reaction of the beam to the column due to slab load from all the periphery of the column is known as Tributary method...
like if there is a simply supported beam with UDL the reaction of the beam can be calculated by wl/2 and thus it produce the load on column







how can we examine the strength of concrete of 40 years old building??


ANS : 


by Destructive or Non-Destructive Testing


 in Destructive Testing we get a core of concrete from Core Cutting Machine..and test its strength in the Laboratory


In Non-Destructive testing...we have Shamidth Hammer testing and PUNDET Testing procedures to find out the strengths of concrete..without any breaking/destruction of concrete structure..


Schmidt hammer A Schmidt hammer, also known as a Swiss hammer or a rebound hammer, is a device to measure the elastic properties or strength of concrete or rock, mainly surface hardness and penetration resistance. Original Schmidt Concrete Test Hammer It was invented by Ernst Schmidt, a Swiss engineer. The Schmidt hammer is distributed by Proceq worldwide.[1] The hammer measures the rebound of a spring-loaded mass impacting against the surface of the sample. The test hammer will hit the concrete at a defined energy. Its rebound is dependent on the hardness of the concrete and is measured by the test equipment. By reference to the conversion chart, the rebound value can be used to determine the compressive strength. When conducting the test the hammer should be held at right angles to the surface which in turn should be flat and smooth. The rebound reading will be affected by the orientation of the hammer, when used in a vertical position (on the underside of a suspended slab for example) gravity will increase the rebound distance of the mass and vice versa for a test conducted on a floor slab. The Schmidt hammer is an arbitrary scale ranging from 10 to 100. Schmidt hammers are available from their original manufacturers in several different energy ranges. These include: (i) Type L-0.735 Nm impact energy, (ii) Type N-2.207 Nm impact energy; and (iii) Type M-29.43 Nm impact energy. The test is also sensitive to other factors: Local variation in the sample. To minimize this it is recommended to take a selection of readings and take an average value. Water content of the sample, a saturated material will give different results from a dry one. Prior to testing, the Schmidt hammer should be calibrated using a calibration test anvil supplied by the manufacturer for that purpose. 12 readings should be taken, dropping the highest and lowest, and then take the average of the ten remaining. Using this method of testing is classed as indirect as it does not give a direct measurement of the strength of the material. It simply gives an indication based on surface properties, it is only suitable for making comparisons between samples. This test method for testing concrete is governed by ASTM C805. ASTM D5873 describes the procedure for testing of rock





it can be known with the help of a method known as "Rebond Hammer" method...A rebond hammer instrument is used in this method..punching through hammer is done at different part of the area.and than strength is calculated through graph..




 take a core and have a compression test... other wise nondestructive tests are also available... it depends upon your pocket.



NDT method USP method Hammer method etc.. Check the book Rapair and Rehabilitation of structure





Q ;


How can we find flexural capacity of cold formed members?


ANS : 








Q : 


i want to learn ms project and p6 being at home anyone can provide link or materail or software etc


ANS : 







Q : 


can anbody tell me that which pile construction technique used in pakistan


ANS : 


 i have seen 
dry method using bucket augar...
slurry displacement method using reverse rotary, bucket augar, percussion...


 i have seen reverse rotary using the bantonite slurry


I have supervised,
Slurry Displacement method
Dry bore using Bucket Auger